Veolia Water Technologies & Solutions

Deposition and Scale Control Chemicals

Protect from scaling and improve your heat exchanger efficiency

System scaling and deposition can cause many problems with your operation. Veolia’s deposition control products help battle the loss of heat exchanger capacity and efficiency that can lead to increased fuel costs. Good deposition control also helps avoid equipment failures, maintenance costs, and emergency shut downs.

Features & Benefits

Deposition and Scale Control Features and Benefits

  • Increases unit throughput and heat transfer
  • Provides superior evaporative cooling
  • Reduces makeup water costs
  • Lowers plant discharge volume
  • Reduces wastewater treatment costs
  • Cuts power consumption
  • Trims maintenance requirements
  • Maintains high heat transfer rates in systems with enhanced chiller tubes


What are deposits?

Deposit accumulations in cooling water systems reduce the efficiency of heat transfer and the carrying capacity of the water distribution system. In addition, the deposits cause oxygen differential cells to form. These cells accelerate corrosion and lead to process equipment failure. Deposits range from thin, tightly adherent films to thick, gelatinous masses, depending on the depositing species and the mechanism responsible for deposition.

Deposit formation is influenced strongly by system parameters, such as water and skin temperatures, water velocity, residence time, and system metallurgy. The most severe deposition is encountered in process equipment operating with high surface temperatures and/or low water velocities. With the introduction of high-efficiency film fill, deposit accumulation in the cooling tower packing has become an area of concern are broadly categorized as scale or foulants.


What is scaling?

Scale deposits are formed by precipitation and crystal growth at a surface in contact with water. Precipitation occurs when solubilities are exceeded either in the bulk water or at the surface. The most common scale-forming salts that deposit on heat transfer surfaces are those that exhibit retrograde solubility with temperature. 

Although they may be completely soluble in the lower-temperature bulk water, these compounds supersaturate in the higher-temperature water adjacent to the heat transfer surface and precipitate on the surface.

Scaling is not always related to temperature. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate scaling occur on unheated surfaces when their solubilities are exceeded in the bulk water. Metallic surfaces are ideal sites for crystal nucleation because of their rough surfaces and the low velocities adjacent to the surface. Corrosion cells on the metal surface produce areas of high pH, which promote the precipitation of many cooling water salts. Once formed, scale deposits initiate additional nucleation, and crystal growth proceeds at an accelerated rate.

Scale control can be achieved through operation of the cooling system at subsaturated conditions or through the use of chemical additives.